Full name: Sigmund Freud
Date of birth May 6, 1856
Died September 23, 1939
Sigmund (Sigismund Shlomo) Freud is a famous psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who lived in Austria at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. For those interested in psychiatry, we recommend buying books by Sigmund Freud, which had a noticeable impact not only on this, but also on other areas of medicine, as well as the science and culture of the 20th century. The innovative ideas of the author set out in the books at one time caused a resonance in the scientific community, and disputes about his rightness or wrongness do not subside to this day. The complete collection of all the books of Sigmund Freud is 24 volumes. Among the most famous are “Interpretation of Dreams”, “Totem and Taboo”, “I and It”, “Psychopathology of Everyday Life” and others.
The future founder of psychoanalysis was born in the spring of 1856 into a Jewish family living in the town of Freiberg in the Austrian Empire. Three years later, the family moved first to Leipzig, and then to Vienna, where the famous psychoanalyst lived most of his life and which he left only during the Nazi occupation.
He studied at the medical faculty of the University of Vienna, while working in the physiological laboratory of Brücke. At the age of 29 he became a doctor of medicine. In the late 1890s, he became interested in psychiatry, primarily in the treatment of neuroses with the help of hypnosis. But over time, he abandoned this practice, considering it ineffective. Developed his own method of free association. Improving it, Freud came to the theory of psychoanalysis, which he devoted the rest of his life.
After the capture of Austria by Hitler, Sigmund Freud’s books were publicly burned in the square, and the author ended up in the Jewish ghetto. Fans of the psychoanalyst managed to ransom him and transport him with his family to London, where he died in 1939 at the age of 83.
The essence of psychoanalysis in the works of Sigmund Freud
The main object of analysis in the psychiatric works of Sigmund Freud was the human unconscious, understood in the books as an active but uncontrollable part of the psyche. This approach destroyed the enlightened concept of an intelligent person in complete control of his mind. This “Copernican upheaval” caused a wave of indignation, since the psychoanalyst interpreted the “cultural shell” of the personality (the way we speak, gesticulate, think, act) as an external cover for animal instincts and countercultural drives.
Reflecting on the motives of the actions of people, the psychoanalyst suggested that they are based on a sexual instinct. The sexual background of neuroses became the basis of Freudian psychotherapy, the postulates of which are discussed in detail in various works of Sigmund Freud, primarily in the book “Introduction to Psychoanalysis”.
After the First World War, which exposed the aggressiveness and irrationality of European man, the psychologist added to his theory the postulate of the “death drive” to explain the nature of wars, the phenomenon of crowds and mass neuroses.