October 26, 2021

Literature Journal

World literature news

List of encyclopedias by date

Encyclopedias before 1700
Nine Books of Disciplines by Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC)
Naturalis Historia by Pliny the Elder (AD 77-79); highly influential through the Middle Ages, the oldest encyclopedia for which there is an extant copy
De verborum significatu by Sextus Pompeius Festus (2nd century AD)
Onomasticon by Julius Pollux (2nd century AD)
The Emperor’s Mirror (Huanglan), Wei dynasty (220-265), Chinese
De compendiosa doctrina, by Nonius Marcellus (probably AD 4th century)
5th century
Martianus Capella, De nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae, introduced the division in seven liberal arts
6th century
Cassiodorus’ Institutiones (full title: Institutiones Divinarum et Saecularium Litterarum), AD 560; first Christian encyclopedia
7th century
Yiwen Leiju (622), Tang dynasty, Chinese
St. Isidore of Seville’s Etymologiae, AD 636; Christian encyclopedia, most influential encyclopedia of the early Middle Ages
Fa yüan chu lin, AD 668, a Buddhist encyclopedia of 100 volumes, compiled by Tao-shih
8th century
Venerable Beda, De natura rerum
9th century
Adab al-katib (The book of knowledge) by Ibn Qutayba (828–889); the earliest Arabic work that could be called an encyclopedia
Bibliotheke by Patriarch Photius (9th century), the earliest Byzantine work that could be called an encyclopedia
Hrabanus Maurus, 842. De rerum naturis (On the nature of things), derived from Isidore’s text
De Administrando Imperio, a domestic and foreign policy manual by emperor Constantine VII
10th century
Suda (10th century)
Four Great Books of Song (Song Sida Shu) (10th to 11th century), Song dynasty, Chinese
Wamyō Ruijushō
11th century
De omnifaria doctrina, by Michael Psellos
Speculum universale, by Radulfus Ardens
12th century
De diversis artibus, compiled 1100–1120 by Theophilus Presbyter
Liber Floridus, compiled in 1120 by Lambert of St. Omer
Imago mundi, treaty of cosmography and history by Honorius Augustodunensis, about 1110
Didascalicon, by Hugues de Saint-Victor (1096-1141), proposal of a new classification of sciences and a new method of lecture of the Bible
Hortus deliciarum, written by Herrade of Landsberg, the first woman to write an encyclopedia, between 1159 and 1175
13th century
Otia Imperialia by Gervase of Tilbury, 1214
Guillaume d’Auvergne, De universo creaturarum, 1231.
Gautier de Metz L’Image du monde, 1246, in Lorrain dialect, based on Honorius Augustodunensis
Bartholomeus Anglicus, De proprietatibus rerum, 1240; the most widely read and quoted encyclopedia in the late-medieval period.
Thomas of Cantimpré, Liber de natura rerum, 1256.
Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Majus, 1260, the most ambitious encyclopedia in the late-medieval period, with over 3 million words
Brunetto Latini, Li Livres dou Trésor, in French
15th century
Yongle Encyclopedia (1403–1408). Ming Dynasty Chinese encyclopedia.
Fons memorabilium universi by Domenico Bandini of Arezzo (early 15th century)
Visio delectable by Alfonso de la Torre (c. 1484)
16th century
Giorgio Valla, De expetendis et fugiendis rebus, 1501
Domenico Nani Mirabelli, Polyanthea nova, 1503
Gregor Reisch, Margarita philosophica, 1503
Johannes Aventinus, Encyclopedia orbisque doctrinarum, hoc est omnium artium, scientiarum, ipsius philosophiae index ac divisio, 1517
Juan Luis Vives, De disciplinis libri XX, 1531
Joachim Sterck van Ringelbergh, Lucubrationes vel potius absolutissima kyklopaideia (Basel), 1541
Charles Estienne, Dictionarium historicum, geographicum et poeticum, 1553.
Pal Skalic, philosopher born in Zagreb, first to use the term encyclopedia in the current sense.Encyclopediae seu orbis disciplinarum tam sacrarum quam profanarum epistemon, 1559 (Basel, Switzerland), 1571 (Köln, Germany)
Theodor Zwinger (1533–1588), Theatrum Vitae Humanae, 1588
Bernardino de Sahagún: La Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España, 1545-1590
Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica) (1596), Ming dynasty, Chinese
17th century
Sancai Tuhui, compiled by Wang Qi and Wang Siyi (1609)
Antonio Zara: Anatomia ingeniorum et scientiarum, 1615
Johann Heinrich Alsted: Encyclopaedia septem tomi distincta 1630
Laurentius Beyerlinck, Magnum Theatrum Vitae Humanae, 1631
Song Yingxing, Tiangong Kaiwu (The Exploitation of the Works of Nature), 1637
Sir Thomas Browne: Pseudodoxia Epidemica 1646-1672
János Apáczai Csere: Magyar encyclopaedia, c. 1655
Louis Moréri Le grand Dictionaire historique (The Great Historical Dictionary), 1671
Johann Jacob Hofmann, Lexicon universale, historico-geographico-chronologico-poetico-phîlologicum‘, Basel, 1677
Antoine Furetière, Dictionnaire universel contenant généralement tous les mots françois, tant vieux que modernes, et les termes de toutes les sciences et des arts 1690.
John Dunton: The ladies dictionary…, 1694
Johann Christoph Wagenseil: Pera librorum iuvenilium, 1695
Pierre Bayle: Dictionnaire Historique et Critique (Historical and Critical Dictionary), 1695
Encyclopedias published 1700–1800
American encyclopedias
Dobson’s Encyclopædia (1789–1798; largely a reprint of the Britannica’s 3rd edition)
British encyclopedias
Lexicon Technicum (1704)
Chambers’s Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (1728)
An Universal History of Arts and Sciences (1745)
Encyclopædia Britannica (1768, editions 2 and 3 by 1797)
Chemical Dictionary by William Nicholson (1795)
Encyclopædia Perthensis (1796–1806, ed 2 by 1816)
Chinese encyclopedias
Gujin Tushu Jicheng (1725–26), Qing dynasty
Siku Quanshu (1782), Qing dynasty
French encyclopedias
Dictionnaire de Trévoux (1704–1771)
Encyclopédie, by Diderot and D’Alembert (1751–1772)
Descriptions des Arts et Métiers (1761–1788)
Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire universel raisonné des connaissances humaines, Yverdon, (1770–1780)
Encyclopédie Méthodique by Charles-Joseph Panckoucke (1782–1832)
German encyclopedias
Reales Staats- und Zeitungs-Lexicon by Philipp Balthasar Sinold von Schütz (1704)
Curieuses Natur- Kunst- Gewerk- und Handlungs-Lexicon by Paul Jacob Marperger (1712)
Allgemeines lexikon der Künste und Wißenschaften by Johann Theodor Jablonski (1721)
Musicalisches Lexicon by Johann Gottfried Walther (1732)
Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon by Christian Gottlieb Jöcher (1733–1751)
Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon by Johann Heinrich Zedler (1751–1754)
Oekonomische Encyklopädie by Johann Georg Krünitz (1773–1858)
Deutschen Encyclopädie (1788)
Historisch-biographisches Lexikon der Tonküstler by Ernst Ludwig Gerber (1790–1792)
Conversations-Lexikon mit vorzüglicher Rücksicht auf die gegenwärtigen Zeiten (1796–1808; see Brockhaus)
Italian encyclopedias
Vincenzo Coronelli Biblioteca Universale Sacro-Profana (1701–1707)
Gianfrancesco Pivati Nuovo dizionario scientifico e curioso, sacroprofano (1746–1751)
Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro Idea dell’Universo (1778-1792)
Japanese encyclopedias
Wakan Sansai Zue (1712)
Polish encyclopedias
Nowe Ateny (1745)
Zbiór potrzebniejszych wiadomości (1781)
Encyclopedias published 1800–1900
American encyclopedias
Minor Encyclopedia (1803), edited by Thaddeus M. Harris, copies much of Kendal’s Pocket Encyclopedia
Domestic Encyclopedia (1803–04), first American edition, expanded to 5 volumes (4 in the British); second American edition 1821
Low’s Encyclopaedia (1805-1811), the first true American encyclopedia
Encyclopaedia Americana (1829–1833), 13 volumes, editor Francis Lieber.
New American Cyclopaedia (1857–1863), 16 volumes, editors George Ripley and Charles A. Dana
American Cyclopaedia (1873–1876), the retitled New American Cyclopaedia
Johnson’s New Universal Cyclopaedia (1876–1878), 4 volumes; editors Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard and Arnold Henry Guyot
Cyclopedia of Universal History (1880–1884), world history
Ridpath’s Universal History (1895), world history
Johnson’s Universal Cyclopaedia (1893–1897), the retitled Johnson’s New Universal Cyclopaedia, edited by Charles Kendall Adams.
Alden’s Library of Universal Knowledge (1879), a reprint of Chambers’s Encyclopaedia with American additions
International Cyclopaedia (1884), initially largely a reprint of Alden’s Library of Universal Knowledge, but later editions were improved by editors Harry Thurston Peck, Selim Peabody, Frank Moore Colby, and Daniel Coit Gilman
People’s Cyclopedia of Universal Knowledge (1881), 3 volumes, 700 pages each,[1] editor W. H. De Puy. Contains much from Chambers’s Encyclopaedia. The 1898 title was The New People’s Cyclopedia of Universal Knowledge.
Arabic encyclopedias
Al-Muhit al Muhit (“The ocean of oceans”), Butrus al-Bustani (1867)
British encyclopedias
Encyclopaedia Londinensis (1801)
English Encyclopaedia (1802)
Domestic Encyclopedia (1802)
Kendal’s Pocket Encyclopedia (1802, second edition 1811)
Rees’s Cyclopædia (1802–1819)
Encyclopædia Perthensis (Perth, Scotland, 1803;1816)
Encyclopædia Britannica (ed 4, 1810; ed 9 by 1889)
Edinburgh Encyclopædia (1808–1830)
British Encyclopaedia (1809)
Encyclopædia Edinensis (1816)
Pantologia (1813)
Encyclopædia Metropolitana (1822–1845)
Penny Cyclopaedia (1833–1846)
English Cyclopaedia (1854–1862, supp. 1869–1873)
Chambers’s Encyclopaedia (1860; no relation to Chambers’s Cyclopaedia of the 18th century)
Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1870)
Dictionary of Political Economy (1894–1899), by Inglis Palgrave
Pears Cyclopaedia (1897), originally named Pears’ Shilling Cyclopaedia
The People’s Select Cyclopedia (1897), by Charles Nisbett
Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible (1898–1904)
Czech encyclopedias
Riegrův slovník naučný (11 volumes, 1860–1874; supplement vol. 1890)
Otto’s encyclopedia (28 volumes, 1888–1909)
Danish encyclopedias
Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon (19 volumes, 1893-1911)
Dutch encyclopedias
Template:See also

Winkler Prins Geïllustreerde Encyclopaedie (1870–1882; 2nd ed. 1884-1888)
French encyclopedias
Dictionnaires généraux, universels, encyclopédiques, et autres… – a bibliography of French encyclopedias up to Larousse
Encyclopédie Méthodique (Panckoucke), 1782–1832
Biographie universelle des musiciens et bibliographie générale de la musique, François-Joseph Fétis (1835–1844)
Encyclopédie nouvelle (Pierre Leroux and Jean Reynaud), 1839–1840
Petite Encyclopédie du jeune âge, Larousse (1853)
Nouvelle Biographie Générale, Ferdinand Hoefer (1853–1866)
Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle by Pierre Larousse (17 volumes 1866–1877), really an encyclopedia despite its name
Dictionnaire de chimie pure et appliquée, Charles-Adolphe Wurtz (1874–1878)
Dictionnaire de botanique, Henri Ernest Baillon (1876–1892)
La Grande Encyclopédie, general secretaries of the editorial board: Ferdinand-Camille Dreyfus and André Berthelot (31 volumes 1886–1902)
German encyclopedias
Oekonomische Encyklopädie (General System of State, City, Home and Agriculture), Editor Johann Georg Krünitz (242 Volumes 1773–1858)
Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse, G. F. W. Hegel (1817)
Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste (Ersch–Gruber; 1818–1889, uncompleted)
Brockhaus (eds. 1–14 by 1900)
Pierers Universal-Lexikon (1824–1836; 7th ed. 1888–1893)
Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft, “Pauly–Wissowa” (1839–1852, 2nd ed. 1890–1980)
Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (1839–1855; 5th ed. 1893–1897)
Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, Johann Jakob Herzog (1853–1868)
Herders Konversations-Lexikon (1854–1857; 2nd ed. 1875–1879)
Handbuch der Organischen Chemie, Friedrich Konrad Beilstein (1880-1882)
Lexikon der gesamten Technik, Otto Lueger (1st Edition 1894–1899)
Encyklopädie der mathematischen Wissenschaften, Felix Klein (1898–1933)
Hungarian encyclopedias
A Pallas Nagy Lexikona (1893–1897)
Polish encyclopedias
Encyklopedia Powszechna or Encyklopedia Orgelbranda (1st Edition, 28 volumes, 1859-1868)
Encyyklopedia Kościelna (33 volumes, 1873-1933)
Romanian encyclopedias
Enciclopedia română (Editor: Constantin Diaconovich, 3 volumes, 1896–1904)
Russian encyclopedias
Plyushar’s Encyclopedic Lexicon (17 volumes, 1834-1841)
Military Encyclopedic Lexicon (15 volumes, 1837-1852)
Encyclopedia of Military and Marine Sciences (8 volumes, 1883-1897)
Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (86 volumes, 1890-1906)
Granat Encyclopedic Dictionary (9 volumes, 1891-1903)
Spanish encyclopedias
Enciclopedia moderna (1851), Francisco de P. Mellado
Diccionario geográfico, estadístico, histórico, de la isla de Cuba (1863–66)
Swedish encyclopedias
Conversations-lexicon (4 volumes, 1821-1826), a translation of Brockhaus 2nd edition
Svenskt konversationslexikon (4 volumes, 1845-1851), by Per Gustaf Berg
Nordisk familjebok (20 volumes, 1876–1899; 2nd ed. 1904–1926)
Turkish encyclopedias
Kamus-ül-Ulûm ve’l-Maarif Editor Ali Suavi,1870
Lûgaat-i Tarihiye ve Coğrafiye Editor Ahmet Rıfat Efendi, 1881 (7 volumes)
Sicil-i Osmani Editor Mehmet Süreyya Bey, 1890
Kamus-ül-Alam Editor » : Şemsettin Sami, 1899 (6 volumes)[2]
Religious encyclopedias
The Coptic Encyclopedia (1993)
Jewish Encyclopedia (1901–1906)
Encyclopaedia Judaica
Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)
Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1914; public domain since 2004)
St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India (1973,82,2010)
Encyclopedia of Mormonism (1992)
Orthodox Encyclopedia (Serbe)
Encyclopaedia of Islam
Hastings, James: Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (1908–1926)
Unitarian-Universalist Encyclopedia[3]
Specialist encyclopedias
The Engineer’s and Mechanic’s Encyclopaedia (1836/1837; 2nd ed. 1849; often cited as Hebert’s Encyclopaedia)
Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts and Manufactures (1852; often cited as Tomlinson’s Cyclopaedia)
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1842)
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1870)
Cyclopaedia of Political Science – Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers]4, John J. Lalor; on Econlib
The Cyclopedia of New Zealand (1897–1908, mainly self-published)