German thinker, philologist, poet and musician Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche is one of the famous European philosophers. His works influenced the development of philosophical, ethical, literary and artistic thought of the 20th century. Contemporaries were in no hurry to buy books by Friedrich Nietzsche, published during the author’s lifetime. But after his death, interest in his philosophical heritage grew. The thinker became the ruler of the thoughts of generations. Pragmatists, existentialists, postmodernists and nihilists relied on his books. Nowadays, the study of the work of Friedrich Nietzsche and the reading of his books have become a compulsory program of university education. Origin The philosopher was born in the Saxon village of Recken. The father and both grandfathers were Lutheran pastors. In the books, Friedrich Nietzsche insisted that his family had Polish roots, but biographers doubt this. Teaching Exceptional intelligence and talent manifested itself already in childhood. The boy composed music and even dreamed of becoming a composer. But an in-depth study of ancient literature at the Pforta gymnasium expanded his sphere of interests. He entered the Faculty of Classical Philology and Theology of the University of Bonn. Then he transferred to Leipzig. He wrote several scientific works, after which he, while still a student, was offered to become a professor of philology at the University of Basel. Having accepted the offer, in 1869 he moved to Switzerland and changed citizenship. Illness At the same time, he began an active philosophical activity, which was partly stimulated by a rapidly developing mental disorder, possibly inherited from his father. The disease was aggravated and then subsided. Because of her, Friedrich Nietzsche retired at the age of 35, and 10 years later ended up in a psychiatric hospital. When the doctors stabilized the state of the thinker, his mother took him home, where he died in the summer of 1900 due to apoplectic stroke caused by the death of his mother. After his death, the books of the philosopher were published by his younger sister Elizabeth, with whom the author had a close but complicated relationship. The woman edited the writings of her brother at her own discretion. The originals of the books were published only in 1967. Philosophical concept of all books by Friedrich Nietzsche The writer created an original teaching called the “philosophy of life.” It is based on criticism of the moral foundations of society, which led to the collapse of culture. The philosopher questions the existing values, first of all, Christian ethics. In his books, the value of a unique and inimitable human life is affirmed, based not on reason or feeling (as before), but on will, understood as the desire to rule. In life, the strongest win in the name of the triumph of the “superman” who will rise above the existing world order and restore the irrational passion that was once lost. After all, without it, life turns into an empty shell, a scheme, an illusion and inevitably degrades.